Pteropoda

The name 'Pteropoda' is an obsolete (but quite convenient) indication for holoplanktonic molluscs belonging to the orders of Thecosomata and Gymnosomata. The species have in common that the original foot has developed into a pair of 'wings' (parapodia), increasing the animals' capacity of buoyancy and locomotion.

The various lower taxonomic units are characterised by rather specialised reproductive and feeding mechanisms, and anatomical structures, such as the mantle appendages in the Euthecosomata, or the 'hooks' in the Gymnosomata. This is not the place to go deeper into these anatomical features. Quite a lot of information on these subjects, also for other holoplanktonic molluscs, and inclusive of beautiful illustrations of the living animals, can be found in Lalli & Gilmer (1989).

Species of which the adult individuals possess shells are found only in the Thecosomata. The order Thecosomata is subdivided into two suborders, Euthecosomata and Pseudothecosomata. The Euthecosomata all have shells, whereas in the Pseudothecosomata some groups have shells, some are naked, and some have developed cartilaginous so-called 'pseudo-conchs'. Shells are either sinistral or bilaterally symmetrical. Basic information on systematics, anatomy and biogeography can be found in van der Spoel (1967) and van der Spoel (1976).

In the Gymnosomata embryonic shells are only present during the first days after hatching after which they are shed. They can be found in fossil and recent bottom sediments. The oldest specimens known to me (still unpublished) are of Miocene age. They belong to various genera but are difficult to identify as even the embryonic shells of the recent species are barely known. Their study is only possible by means of Stereo Electroscan because of their very small size of 200 microns and less. Info on systematics and anatomy is found e.g. in van der Spoel (1976).

Some typical representatives of the various groups are illustrated here (drawings by the present author, SEM micrographs by Jeroen Goud of the National Museum of Natural History, Leiden, The Netherlands) to give an idea of the morphologies involved:

 

Thecosomata, Euthecosomata, Limacinoidea

Family Limacinidae

Heliconoides mercinensis (Watelet & Lefèvre, 1880)

 

Fur (Denmark, Jylland), beach at Knuden Cliff (calcitic internal moulds). Palaeocene, Thanetian, Mo-Clay Formation, 'Cement-stone, C-Block'
 Coll. Fur Museum, reg. nr 1091 FUM (not published). Magnification c. 4 x

 

 

Heliconoides tertiaria (Tate, 1887)

 

Miocene (Langhian ?), of Sannicola Varano (Italy, Gargano) (phosphatic internal mould); 2 specimens in the RGM collection

 (unregistered, not published); bar length is 1/10 mm; left = apical view, right = frontal view

 

Cavolinioidea

Family Creseidae

       

      


          Creseis
sp.

 

Miocene (Langhian), Upper Globigerina Limestone Formation), from Mdina (Malta), phosphatic internal mould

RGM collection (unregistered, not published); bar length is 1/10 mm

 

 

 

 

Praehyalocylis maxima (Ludwig, 1864) and f. perspectiva (Futterer, 1893)

 

Bodenheim, Mayence Basin (Germany, Rheinland-Pfalz). Oligocene, Rupelian, 'Fischschiefer'. Collection Senckenberg Museum,

Frankfurt am Main (Germany), regstr. nr. SMF 327481, H. Neuenhaus collection, ex Th. Crecelius. Magnification c. X 3.

Published in Cahuzac & Janssen (2010).

 

 

 

 

                 Praehyalocylis maxima (Ludwig, 1864) f. perspectiva (Futterer, 1893)

 

Westeregeln near Magdeburg (Germany, Sachsen-Anhalt), pyritic internal mould with shell preserved. Oligocene (Rupelian),

Fischschiefer. Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt Universität (Berlin, Germany), unregistered (not published);

bar length = 1 mm

 

 

Styliola subula (Quoy & Gaimard, 1827), neotype

 

Tydeman Selvagens-Canary Islands Expedition, 1980. CANCAP-IV Sta. 4.117, Canary Islands, S of Palma,

28°26' N, 17°51' W, depth 503 m, gravel, sand and shells, van Veen grab, 28 May 1980. Frontal view and protoconch,

height of specimen = 7,5 mm.  National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, The Netherlands, NNM 57267.

Published in Janssen (1999a, p. 19, text-fig. 3)

 

 

Tibiella annulata Garvie, in Hodgkinson, Garvie & Bé, 1992, paratype (apertural flange missing)

McBrides Place, Texas (U.S.A.) (= locality 10 in Hodgkinson et al., 1992). Eocene, Lutetian, Weches Formation, Viesca Member.

Coll. C. Garvie, reg, nr 3937. Bar length = 1 mm (frontal, lateral and apertural views). Unpublished.

 

Family Cuvierinidae

              


Cuvierina (Urceolarica) inflata (Bellardi, 1873)

 

Poggio Musenna (Italy, Sicily, Ragusa) , limonitic internal mould. Miocene (Tortonian), Tellaro Formation. Coll.

National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), reg. nr RGM 397.507 (right hand figure, ventral view), RGM 397.508

(three figures on the left, apertural, ventral and lateral views), bar-length = 1 mm. Published in Janssen (1999a, figs. 8a-c, 9)

 


Cuvierina (Cuvierina) jagti A.W. Janssen, 1995

 

Poggio Musenna (Italy, Sicily, Ragusa) , limonitic internal mould. Miocene (Tortonian), Tellaro Formation. Coll. National

Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), reg. nr RGM 397.510 (apertural, ventral and lateral views),

bar-length = 1 mm. Published in Janssen (1999a, fig. 10a-c)

 

Cuvierina (Cuvierina) paronai Checchia-Rispoli, 1921

 

Poggio Musenna (Italy, Sicily, Ragusa) , limonitic internal mould. Miocene (Tortonian), Tellaro Formation. Coll. National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), reg. nr RGM 397.509

(apertural, ventral and lateral views), bar-length = 1 mm. Published in Janssen (1999a, fig. 11a-c.

 

Ireneia nieulandei Janssen, 1995, holotype

Saucats, La Coquillière (France, Landes). Miocene, Burdigalian, Falun de Pont Pourquey. Collection

 National Museum of Natural History, Leiden  (The Netherlands), RGM 393.138.

Left: ventral view, middle: lateral view, right: apertural view. Height of specimen 20.8 mm.

Published in Janssen (1995, pl. 14, fig. 4).

 

Family Cliidae

Clio (Bellardiclio) carinata (Audenino, 1897)

 

Çörten (Turkey, Adana). Miocene, 'Vindobonian', brownish-grey clays. Coll. National Museum of Natural History, Leiden

(The Netherlands), reg. nr RGM 393.111 (leg. A.W. Janssen, 11 May 1990).

Published Janssen (1995, pl. 6, fig. 1); bar length = 1 mm

 

 

 

Clio (Balantium) collina Janssen & Zorn, 2001

 

Colli Torinese (? Termo-Fourà) (Italy, Piemonte). Miocene, ? Burdigalian/Early Langhian (? Termô-Fôrà 'conglomerati'). Coll.

Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Torino, reg. nr BS 007.05.001 (Bellardi & Sacco collection). Published in Bellardi

(1873, pl.3, fig. 10, as Balantium pedemontanum non Mayer), Janssen (1995, pl. 6, fig. 2a-d, as Clio sp. ? an C. lavayssei non Rutsch)

and Janssen & Zorn (2001, fig. 1a-d). Bar length = 1 mm (apertural, dorsal, ventral and lateral views)

 

Clio (Balantium) lavayssei Rutsch, 1934, holotype

 

Basin Hill Reserve (Trinidad, Central Range). Miocene (St. Croix Beds). Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel (Switzerland),

reg. nr NMB H 11358 (6/4599), leg. H. Rohr, 2 May 1931. Published in Rutsch (1934, fig. 4) and Janssen & Zorn (2001, fig. 2a-b).

Bar length = 1 mm (schematic transverse section and internal mould in external mould of ventral side)

 

Clio (Balantium) lucai Janssen, 2000; illustrated paratype

 

Traversetolo, outcrop on left bank of Enza River, just N of the bridge connecting Traversetolo and S. Polo (Italy, Parma).

Early Pleistocene, grey very sandy clay. Collection National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands),

 registration nr. RGM 429.251. Ventral view; height of specimen 25 mm. Published in Janssen (2000, fig. 6).

 

Family Cavoliniidae

Cavolinia bituminata (Beets, 1953), holotype

 

Waisioe, Buton (Indonesia, Sulawesi). Miocene (Tortonian-Messinian). Coll. Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel

(Switzerland),  reg. nr NMB H 17876 (leg. F. Weber). Published in Janssen (1999b, pl. 1, figs.2a-d),

dorsal, lateral and ventral view (upper row) respectively; lower figures: details of closing mechanism.

Bar length upper three figures = 1 mm; lower two figures c. x 75

 

 

Cavolinia grandis (Bellardi, 1873)

 

McKay Creek, Kaniere Valley (New Zealand, South Island, Westcoast). Pliocene, Waipipian, Bluebottom Formation.

Coll. Otago University, Geology Department, Dunedin, New Zealand, reg. OU11913 (leg. C.S. Almond, 1976).

Published in Janssen (2000: 46, figs 10a-b); bar-length = 1 mm

 

Cavolinia mexicana (Collins, 1934)

 

Waisioe, Buton (Indonesia, Sulawesi). Miocene (Tortonian-Messinian). Coll. National Museum of Natural History,

Leiden (The Netherlands), reg. nrs RGM 42.513 (upper specimen), RGM 231.432 (K. Martin collection).

Holotype (upper) and paratype (lower) of Cavolina cranioides Beets, 1943. Bar-length = 1 mm.

Published in Janssen (1999b, pl. 1, figs.3a-c, 4a-c)

 

 

Diacria mbaensis Ladd, 1934


Holotype (right) and paratype (left). 2 1/4 miles S of Na Rarawai, Ladd Sta. 306, Viti Levu, Fiji. Miocene

(Tortonian-Messinian). Coll. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu (Hawaii, USA), reg. nrs BPBM 208244-5).

 Published in Ladd (1934, figs. 6, 7) and Janssen (1999b, pl. 2, figs. 13a-b, 14a-b).

 

 

Diacria sangiorgii Scarsella, 1934

 

Poggio Musenna (Italy, Sicily, Ragusa) , limonitic internal mould. Miocene (Tortonian), Tellaro Formation.

Coll. National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), reg. nr RGM 397.511

dorsal, left lateral and ventral views), bar-length = 1 mm. Published in Janssen (1999a, fig. 6a-c)

 

Edithinella caribbeana (Collins, 1934)

Poggio Musenna (Italy, Sicily, Ragusa), limonitic internal mould. Miocene (Tortonian), Tellaro Formation. Coll.

National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands),  reg. nr RGM 397.512 (ventral, left lateral and dorsal views),

bar-length = 1 mm. Published in Janssen (1999a, fig. 12a-c)

 

 

Gamopleura melitensis Janssen, 1995

 

Wardija, Gozo, Malta, phosphoritic internal moulds. Late Oligocene (Chattian), top of Lower Globigerina Limestone

Member (C 1 phosphoritic level). Collectie National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands),

RGM 284.001, published Janssen (2004). Magnification c. x 3.

 

Vaginella austriaca Kittl, 1886

 

Gram, Enderupskov (Denmark, Jylland), gravelpit, numerous specimens in aragonite decalcified, reddish-brown

sandstone  with also some benthic molluscs, e.g. Aporrhais, Yoldia. Miocene, Hemmoorian (reworked from Arnum Formation in

 fluvio-glacial deposits). Coll. National Museum of Natural History, Leiden (The Netherlands), reg. nr RGM 429.485

(leg. M.S. Nielsen, don. K.I. Schnetler) (not published)

 

Thecosomata, Pseudothecosomata, Peraclidoidea

Family Peraclidae

 


Peracle lata (Krach, 1979), lectotype

 

Brzeszce-1 borehole (Poland), 59 m below surface. Miocene (Badenian, Early Opolian, Moravian), Uvigerina kostai Zone.

Coll. Instytut Nauk Geologicznich PAN, Kraków (Poland). Published in Janssen & Zorn (1993: 210, pl. 4, fig. 4 a-b;

bar-length = 1 mm

 

Peracle reticulata (d'Orbigny, 1836)

 

Manihiki Plateau Expedition, Pacific Ocean, sta. 351b; Recent. National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, The Netherlands),

not yet registered. Bar lengths = 0.1 mm (left) and 0,01 mm (right = detail of cuticulum) 

 

 
, unpublished.

 

 

Gymnosomata

? Paedoclione sp., larval shell

 

Manihiki Plateau Expedition, Pacific Ocean, sta. 351b, Recent. National Museum of Natural History (Leiden, The Netherlands),

not registered; bar lengths = 0.1 mm; unpublished.

 

 

 

 
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